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Fri, 1 Feb 2008

HTTP Mangling, Redirection etc.

So - here's the scenario.

Lohan is busy testing an application which uses remote web-services on a server called (example), but the program bypasses all proxy servers etc, making it impossible to trap and mangle requests.

So, we do the following:

1 - We make a note of the IP address of (in this case, we'll assume it is 196.310.150.126 )

2 - Add a host entry in hosts, mapping to

3 - Fire up a quick C# app written by yours truly which listens on

4 - Fire up a proxy server

5 - Configure the C# app to use proxy server of proxy
Now, the C# app does the following:

1 - Intercepts the HTTP request addressed to

2 - Mangles the HTTP request to convert it into a proxied request (ie: Request "GET / HTTP/1.0" now becomes "GET HTTP/1.0")

3 - Writes the request to the proxy server

4 - Writes the response back to the application

So, we're now able to intercept, fuzz, mangle etc all the requests and responses between the application and the web service. Not really rocket science, but rather handy...

The screenshot shows something similar, but using a web browser in place of the application here. I am using paros in this example because I am still doing large chunks of work on Suru...

HTTP Mangling


Tue, 1 Jan 2008

Applescript for HTTP BruteForcing..

A long time ago i blogged on the joys of using VBS to automate bruteforcing [1|2]when one didnt want to mess about duplicating an applications functionality at the protocol level.. Yesterday i had need to brute-force a web application which tried hard to be difficult and annoying..

Normally i would have used crowbar, Suru or a ugly mangled Python script, but the application was strangely difficult..

i.e. the login process is multi staged, with new cookies being handed out at various stages. 302 redirects are used heavily and then to top it off a healthy dose of JavaScript is sent back in replies that also affect your navigation.. Now all of this can be scripted (obviously) but i figured i would try automating Safari with applescript to get the same effect..

Co-opting the browser means i dont have to worry about redirects and javascript and (other stuff i didnt want to be messing with on new years day).. and so..

(click for full-size)

So this script effectively fires up Safari and iterates through my list of usernames. It then uses JavaScript to fill in the parts of the forms i need to fill in (only a few samples left in this example) and clicks submit when needed.. It uses username+123 as a password. Once it jumps through all the hoops it needs to, it screenshots the result and saves it in ~/captures/XXXX.png (where XXXX is the username being tested).

This was quick and dirty, if i had more time i would have chosen to read the results and only screenshot results that didnt match "your credentials are invalid".. ahh.. for another day..

*** a word of warning.. AppleScript is described as "an English-like language used to create script files that control the actions of the computer and the applications that run on it." This english-like-ness makes it extremely obtuse at times..

In a subsequent version of the brute force, i wished to use the username from my list, and the users First Name as his password. Now this is an obvious call for a hash/dictionary/associative array.. The sparse documentation that i was able to find on AppleScript records did not appear to help me a jot (but this could just be poor google skills).

Instead i opted for saving the username and password as a ":" delimited string. I then split the string at runtime and submit as before.. ugly, but effective..

its not perfect, but its neat and a nice tool to keep in your arsenal..


Tue, 11 Dec 2007

Rob Auger from OWASP/WASC/CGiSecurity on Timing..

Rob had a rant on his site on the timing attack, with a CSRF twist.. We met him after our Vegas talk, but im not really sure how his attack differs from our published one..

my on-list response:

From: haroon meer 
Subject: Re: [WEB SECURITY] Performing Distributed Brute Forcing of CSRF
vulnerable login pages

Hi Robert..

Thanks for the kind words on the talk.. If you check out the visio at: you will see that its pretty much the same attack.. In a shameless display of self-pimpage, check out the paper from page 12.. Figure 23 for example shows the results in a victim/zombies browser, after he has visited our page.. Effectively he tries the userlist we send him (in this case on a standard squirrelmail login page). Once he detects a timing diff (again using a trivial algorithm to avoid latency disparity) he simply makes another request to the attacker to report his success..

We do give the important pieces of the script in the paper, but i suspect anyone with 2 minutes of time could have cobbled them together anyway..



Fri, 21 Sep 2007

BotNets not just for SPAM any more

The Symantec Security blog has an article titled "Botnets: not just for spamming anymore". Interestingly we are now starting to see the use of botnets for more than just simple spamming (or simpler DoS attacks).

Its pretty cool (in a twisted sort of way), because this is one of those things we called out a long time ago, predicting that botnets were way under-used as a form of cheap distributed computing. We have been mentioning its potential for effectively minimizing the key-space of session-ids and it looks like its starting to rear its head..

Its one of those combination "i expected this a long time ago" && "oh #$@#.. lets hope it doesnt catch" moments..

Fri, 3 Aug 2007

Late BlackHat Update..

ok.. so im in my room finally catching up on sleep (or will be in a few minutes) while most people are finishing Microsofts booze at the PURE microsoft party.. BlackHat is over, which means tomorrow we are off to the riviera for defcon..

Marco and i got a lot of positive feedback from our talk, including from guys like rob auger of wasc fame and andrew bortz who we quote in our paper, so it was pretty cool.. all our demos went of smoothly (where one of them was using javascript (and timing) to create a distributed brute-forcing tool, which had every opportunity to go south) so we were happy..

Most of the SensePost'ers have been making notes so they can blog on talks they attended.. this will filter through in the next few days.. I caught the Erratasec talk this morning, and have a few thoughts, but ill wait till i have time to actually comment properly..

Last night we found a patch of parking lot to have the first SensePost vs. BlackHat crew (.za vs USA?) Soccer/Football game.. We started off being kicked outa the Palace Ballroom and ended up on a patch of ground outside but it ended up being awesome.. Ultimately, Bradley, Charl, Marco, Nick and I ended up taking on Grifter, DedHed, Joe Grand, Dave, and Chris(?)  while j0hnny long was official photographer..

It was all around awesomeness and probably the most fun i personally had in vegas in a while..

We promised to upload one of the tools we demo'd during the talk, so ill do that in a few minutes..