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Tue, 13 Jul 2010

GlypeAhead: Portscanning through PHP Glype proxies

As the need for online anonymity / privacy grew, the proxy industry flourished with many proxy owners generating passive incomes from their proxy networks.

Although 'proxy' is normally thought to imply some sort of daemonized application, such as Squid (or a SOCKS) daemon, the last couple of years have heralded in the age of CGI proxies and more commonly, their PHP variants.

These PHP proxies are extremely trivial to deploy and configure, especially since most hosting environments have PHP installed by default. When development of PHProxy (a popular PHP proxy) ceased, many devoted fans starting releasing their own customised PHProxy fixes and variants. In recent years, however, many proxy owners have gravitated towards Glype since it seemed to be well maintained (though the current status may be questionable).

While there have been tools created to portscan targets through SOCKS and HTTP proxies, I am not aware of any which reliably performed it through the current range of PHP proxies.

By default, Glype has few restrictions on what hosts / ports can be accessed through it and normally displays its cURL error messages as well. Using these apparent weaknesses, GlypeAhead is able to perform portscans of targets with reasonable accuracy.

It must be mentioned that even if a port is open on the target, it will be regarded as closed if the Glype proxy in use is unable to successfully connect to the service.

Due to GlypeAhead being a proof-of-concept tool, its logic has been purposefully limited to only work against Glype installations which display the default cURL error messages.

Below are screenshots of a Nmap scan compared to a GlypeAhead scan.

Nmap scan of a Target (ports 22, 25 and 80)

GlypeAhead scan of a Target (ports 22, 25 and 80)

GlypeAhead is written in PHP (as is the Glype proxy), requires the cURL extension to be compiled with PHP, and is available from either our Pentesting Tools section, or directly from here.

Sat, 1 May 2010

Password Strength Checker & Generator

In my previous role working as a security manager for a large retailer, I developed some password tools for various purposes, primarily to help non-security people with some of the basics. I licensed them under the GPL, and I think it's about time they saw the light of day.

There are a couple of tools, which I will explain below. They're all written in JavaScript, primarily because it is cross-platform, but can be centrally hosted. They all work in Firefox and Internet Explorer, although the automatic copy to clipboard functionality of the service desk tool is IE only.

The intention is for the tools to be placed into your organisation's intranet somewhere. I found they came in much use, allowing me to reference a specific tool and setting rather than esoteric password theory in documents. For example, security standards documents would say "Service account passwords should either be generated by the password generator set to the service account setting, or be rated as "very strong" by the password strength checker", which is far more practical than quoting a list of password rules.

Being centrally hosted also allows updates to be made immediately in the case of a policy change, new common password addition, or bug. This also allowed web logs to provide an audit trail of who was using the tools. Particularly useful in the case of monitoring service desk activity e.g. If the service desk records 100 password resets, and the tool only saw 10 hits, you know something's up.

If you're a tactile learner, you can grab them here.

Password Strength Checker

This tool was written in response to the poor attempts at password strength checkers seen on many sites. They do basic checks for upper, lower-case characters and numbers. This allows passwords like "Password1" to be marked as "strong." Primarily based on Tyler Atkins' entropy and common word checker, I put together a more advanced utility. This will check the chosen password for:

  • Length (over 8 characters)
  • Character sets (lowercase, uppercase, numbers, special characters)
  • Frequency (checks for common sets of characters e.g. "u" following "q", biased to English)
  • Common Words (checks that common words aren't used e.g. Password1)
I've added a progress bar from Gerd Riesselmann, and a key for guidance. I've also eased the password strength requirements to better fit reasonable corporate password policies. These can be easily modified in the code though.

There are two versions provided, one which displays the results of the entropy calculations, and one which does not (user's rarely care).

Password Generators

There are three password generators, each with a different audience in mind.

Full Password Generator

The full password generator is the most complex and has a number of features:

  • Generate random passwords of varying complexity based on a "usage" selector such as "user", "administrator" or "service account". These match up to the complexity key in the strength checker.
  • Generate lists of passwords to be used as distributed One-Time-Password lists. This is useful if passwords are regularly required between two parties to avoid using a static password. The list can be delivered via an alternative medium than the data being transmitted, and an agreed rotation period set up, such as a new password to be used "every day" or "every week".
  • Create a NATO alphabet version of the password for speaking over the phone with the "will be spoken" option
The actual password generation code was courtesy of the no-longer-available CryptoMX tools, and the NATO alphabet conversion code was courtesy of L. Bower.

Service Desk Password Generators

The service desk password generators were created to help the service desk stop resetting everyone's password to the same thing. It's one of the most pervasive security problems in any organisation, the service desk are told to reset passwords to some common password like "abc123", "Password<x>" or "<username>". Most user's know it, and if you do ever investigate service desk password resets, will find some serious abuses going on. This tool is a quick and dirty way to provide more reasonable alternatives for the service desk to use.

It's basic features are:

  • A very simple interface and instructions
  • A basic and somewhat unique password is generated
  • A "pronounceable" version of the password is created in the NATO alphabet for speaking over the phone
  • The password is copied to the clipboard (IE only) for pasting into whatever reset tool is in use
There are two versions, the first generates a strong random password, and the second uses one of a list of weak base words, with random numbers put on the end. The second was created after push back from the service desk agents saying that user's were complaining about the random passwords. I don't like the second version, because it is still fairly predictable, and someone internally could pull out the passwords and create a simple password list to feed to any number of tools. If you are going to use the second version, please use your own list of words, ideally several thousand to increase the entropy. The current list was created by taking the top 500 6-digit words from the Unix English (en) dictionary, and removing complex ones.

These tools where originally written when I was an employee of Deloitte South Africa, and while necessarily under the GPL due to included code, are still published here with permission of them. They have however, been updated since then on SensePost's coin.

Tue, 6 Apr 2010

BroadView V4 Attributes

Following on from Evert's posting about the new BroadView v4, I'd like to showcase a specific aspect of BV that we've found useful, namely Attributes. These are small pieces of data collected and maintained for each host scanned by BV including somewhat mundane bits of info like IP address and OS but, they also include some really tasty morsels about remote hosts that are scanned. Attributes are collected on a per-scan-per-host basis, and are populated by each test that runs during the scan. Since attribute population is dependent on the selected tests, the set of Attributes available to you would vary according to you configuration.

Consider the trivial attribute Network.TCP.HTTP.Banner; this doesn't require credentials to acquire and is stored by a test that detects webservers. On the other hand, the test that stores Users.Microsoft.Windows.Group.SystemOperators.Members would require domain credentials in order to pull the needed info. This is common inside of organisations, where BV is primarily intended.

To help me explain the power of Attributes a little easier, here are a few scenarios:

Your IT manager wants to know which Windows machines are missing the new MS10-018 patch. Instead of trawling through all the latest scans looking for hosts that are affected , you simply:

  1. Login to BroadView
  2. Click Attributes
  3. Select Patches.Microsoft.Windows.Missing
  4. Click MS10-018
  5. Download CSV
  6. Done
Perhaps you have rolled-out a new WSUS system and need to find all the Windows hosts still configured with the old WSUS server name. Again:
  1. Login to BroadView
  2. Attributes
  3. Config.Microsoft.Windows.WSUS.Server
  4. Click the name of the old WSUS server
  5. Download CSV
  6. Done
Or you are trying to find all the hosts with a specific piece of software installed (e.g. uTorrent). Click Attributes >> Software.Installed.Microsoft.Windows >> uTorrent >> Download CSV.

One of the IT techies gives you a call:

Bob: Hey Steve Steve: Ahoy Bob: Do you know which FTP servers on the network allow Anonymous access? Steve: Ofcourse I do Login to BroadView >> Attributes >> Network.TCP.FTP.IsAnonymousAccessAllowed >> True >> Download CSV Steve: You got mail Bob: Awesome, thanks

As you can see the power and extensibility of BroadView Attributes is (according to opinions from the office) Simply Astonishing(tm). We are currently working with our Assessment team to include Attributes that would allow them to very quickly pull a list of all "low hanging fruit" vulnerabilities when performing an internal Pen Test.

Currently we collect just over 50 attributes, but are adding new ones as we either think of or clients request more. The full list is:

Services.Microsoft.Windows.Running Users.Microsoft.Windows.Local.LastLoggedIn Users.Microsoft.Windows.Local.NeverLoggedIn Users.Microsoft.Windows.Local.PasswordNeverExpires Users.Microsoft.Windows.Group.AccountOperators.Members Users.Microsoft.Windows.Group.BackupOperators.Members Users.Microsoft.Windows.Group.PrintOperators.Members Users.Microsoft.Windows.Group.Replicators.Members Users.Microsoft.Windows.Group.SystemOperators.Members Users.Microsoft.Windows.Network.NeverChangedPasswords Users.Microsoft.Windows.Network.NeverLoggedOn Users.Microsoft.Windows.Network.PasswordNeverExpires Users.Microsoft.Windows.ActiveDirectory.Group.Members Users.Microsoft.Windows.ActiveDirectory.AccountsOld.Members Users.Microsoft.Windows.ActiveDirectory.AccountsStale.Members Users.Microsoft.Windows.ActiveDirectory.AccountsBadLogins.Members Users.Microsoft.Windows.ActiveDirectory.AccountsOldPassword.Members Users.Microsoft.Windows.ActiveDirectory.AccountsPasswordNeverSet.Members Users.Microsoft.Windows.ActiveDirectory.AccountsDisabled.Members Users.Microsoft.Windows.ActiveDirectory.AccountsLocked.Members Config.Microsoft.Windows.Domain.IsCorrect Config.Microsoft.Windows.Domain.Value Config.Microsoft.Windows.WSUS.Server Config.Microsoft.Windows.WSUS.Server.IsConfigured Config.Microsoft.Windows.WSUS.Server.Value Config.Microsoft.Windows.MachineName Debug.Network.IsHostAccessible
Debug.Microsoft.Windows.Registry.Access.Full Debug.Microsoft.Windows.Registry.Access.Read Debug.Microsoft.Windows.Registry.Access.Fail Debug.Microsoft.Windows.Privileges.Admin.Full Debug.Microsoft.Windows.Privileges.Admin.Fail ServicePacks.Microsoft.Windows.Win2k3.Value ServicePacks.Microsoft.Windows.Win2k3.IsInstalled ServicePacks.Microsoft.Windows.NT4.Value ServicePacks.Microsoft.Windows.NT4.IsInstalled ServicePacks.Microsoft.Windows.Win2k.Value ServicePacks.Microsoft.Windows.Win2k.IsInstalled ServicePacks.Microsoft.Windows.XP.Value ServicePacks.Microsoft.Windows.XP.IsInstalled Software.Microsoft.Office.Value Software.Microsoft.Office.IsInstalled Software.Microsoft.SMSAgent.IsInstalled Software.Microsoft.SMSAgent.IsRunning Software.Microsoft.SMSAgent.IsInstalled Software.Microsoft.SMSAgent.McAfee.EPOAgent.IsInstalled Software.AntiVirus.Linux Processes.Microsoft.Windows Network.TCP Network.TCP.FTP.IsAnonymousAccessAllowed Network.TCP.SMTP.IsRelayAllowed Network.TCP.HTTP.Banner Network.TCP.HTTP.Directories Network.TCP.Banner Network.TCP.SMB.Direcotories Network.UDP.DNS.ReverseDNS Network.UDP.LDAP.BaseObject